John Kinzie silversmith (1763-1828)
his early career as Shawneeawkee "The Silver Man"

a "work in progress" by Robert Derome with the close collaboration of John Forbes Swenson and the help of other collaboration
"There is no picture of John Kinzie. His family said that he looked so much like George Canning, British Prime Minister around 1800 that after Kinzie's death they kept a picture of Canning around, to remind them of their late relative." (Collaboration from Ulrich Danckers, January 25, 2002.)

Thomas Stewardson (1781-1859), Portrait of George Canning (1770-1827), 1830-1834, engraving. (Source: The National Portrait Gallery of Illustrious and Eminent Personages of the Nineteenth Century, with Memoirs by William Jerdan, Esquire, London, Fisher, Son & Jackson, 1830-1834, 5 volumes.)

John Kinzie was born in Quebec City in 1763 according to several publications. We would need to get copy of his birth certificate from the Archives in Quebec City to give his exact birthday date.

FamilySearch Internet Genealogy Service
gives four entries to John Kinzie's birth.

John KINZIE. Sex: M. Birth: 1763 Quebec. Father: John MCKENZIE. Mother: Mrs William FORSYTH.

John KINZIE. Sex: M. Birth: 3 Dec 1763 Quebec, Quebec, Quebec. Father: John MC KENZIE. Mother: Anne.

John H. KINZIE. Sex: M. Birth: 3 Dec 1763 Quebec. Father: John MC KENZIE. Mother: Mrs. Anne MC KENZIE.

John Kinzie. Sex: M. Birth: 23 Dec 1763 Quebec, Canada. Death: 6 Jan 1828 Chicago, IL. Father: John McKinzie.

His biography is well know after 1800 when he played a major role in founding the town of Chicago. But his carrer as a youth when he was trained as a silversmith is still obscure.

"He was born Kenzie but changed spelling to Kinzie. His father, John Kenzie or MacKenzie, was a Scottish surgeon in the British army and died about 1763. His mother, Emily or Anne Tyne, had been first married to British army chaplain William Halliburton and then, in 1761, to Kenzie; was widowed twice; about 1764 she married William Forsyth, member of a prominent trading family. Forsyth became Kinzie's stepfather, and his five sons, from this and a previous marriage, became John's stepbrothers." (Danckers 2000, p. 220.)

"John Kinzie [...] was born in Quebec, in 1763, and was the only offspring of his mother's second marriage. His father died while he was an infant, and his mother married a third time [...]" (Lossing 1869 web, chapter XV, note 23.)

Silversmiths' historians do not give much information on his training as a silversmith.

"KENZIE, JOHN (-1800-1820-) Montreal, Que. Received his training as a silversmith in Montreal. Made Indian trade silver." (Langdon 1966, p. 90)

Archeological digs by Historic Archeological Research at Prophetstown Greene Ville Ohio revealed on November 23, 1993, the findings of a silver brooch with a mark ascribed to John Kinzie. The makers punch mark is worn on the right side of the "K"; its initials "JK" show similarities and differences with others ascribed to Kinzie; the square cartouche is quite different from other marks. Are all these marks by the same silversmith?

Brooch, and its punch mark, found in Prophetstown Greene Ville Ohio by Historic Archeological Research. See also Green 1994, p. 24.
Three punch marks ascribed to John Kinzie by Langdon 1966, p. 90. Verifications and discussions would need to be made to check out these attributions.
"Marks of siversmiths stamped on silver ornaments made for the fur trade in the Late Historic Period, 1760-1820. Courtesy of Chicago Natural History Museum. [...] O, John Kinzie [...] (Not all identifications are positive.)" (Quimby 1966, p. 98-99, fig. 21, letter "O".)

Another silversmith of the same period, active in Montreal, shared the same "JK" initials. Some of these punch marks have to be his. Especially the scripted ones that were used among collaborators of the great silversmith Robert Cruickshank like Narsise Roy to which Kennedy was closely related (Derome 1996a). Was the above brooch found at Prophetstown made by John Kinzie or by Joseph Kennedy? Joseph Kennedy was active about 1793-1834! He also was acquainted with the Pierre Huguet dit Latour workshop, which punch mark letters were rather square. All these Montreal silversmiths were very active making trade silver for "les Pays d'en haut", the region around the Great Lakes especially from Detroit to Saint-Louis. Here is an unpublished french study we made about Joseph Kennedy's career from our archives.

Another silversmith with a "JK" punch mark
Joseph KENNEDY (-1793-1834-)

Orfèvre, fils de Josette Dupré et de Daniel Kennedy. Se déclare marchand orfèvre, le 15 septembre 1793, lors de son mariage avec Angélique Leheup; l'orfèvre Narsise (Narcis, Narcisse, Narsis, Narsisse) Roy* et son épouse assistent à la signature du contrat de mariage en tant qu'amis des futurs époux. Propriétaire d'une maison sise au Coteau Saint-Louis Kennedy vend celle-ci, le 25 août 1794, à l'orfèvre Joseph Ferquel*. Il est prévu au contrat que 350# des 1302# dues seront payées en orfèvrerie de traite. L'orfèvre Pierre Huguet dit Latour* se porte garant de Ferquel pour le paiement des 350# en pendants d'oreilles. Deux jours après cette transaction, Kennedy achète un emplacement situé sur la rue Saint-Urbain à Montréal. Le 18 février 1797, à la demande de l'orfèvre Christian Grothé* son cousin par alliance, il nomme, avec entre autres Nathan Starns*, un subrogé tuteur aux enfants de Grothé. C'est le 20 novembre de cette année que Kennedy engage, pour six ans, le seul apprenti qui lui soit connu: Jean-Baptiste Baillard*. Il signe, le 11 décembre 1798, une obligation de 900# envers Simon Cavilhe négoçiant. Présent à l'inventaire après décès de Louis-Alexandre Picard*, il se contente d'acheter deux petits lots de pierreries. Ayant enrichi son emplacement de la rue Saint-Urbain d'une maison de bois et de bâtiments, il réalise un profit de 2520# en le vendant le 17 septembre 1799. Judicieux en affaires il exige des intérêts de 5% sur les sommes dues à la vente de sa maison, mais il se négociera des paiements sans intérêts pour l'achat d'une nouvelle résidence encore située dans le faubourg Saint-Laurent. Il sera moins chanceux deux ans plus tard, lorsqu'il se verra obligé de payer des intérêts de 6% pour une dette de 600# contractée envers Antoine Mallard. Si l'on perd un peu de vue Kennedy durant quelques années, on peut tout de même mentionner que l'engagement de son apprenti a pris fin en 1803. De plus son épouse décède vu que celui-ci convole en seconde noces avec Marianne Doig le 8 janvier 1810; on note la présence de Pierre Huguet dit Latour* au mariage. Malgré son remariage, Kennedy attendra six ans pour procéder au partage de la communauté de biens existant entre lui et sa première femme. Pour parvenir à verser les legs, de la mère à ses trois enfants, il vend sa maison du faubourg Saint-Laurent le 1er octobre 1816; après avoir demandé l'autorisation au conseil de famille auquel participent Christian Grothé et Nathan Starns. Devant se reloger il loue au village de l'Assomption, pour quatre années à compter de la saint Michel 1816, un terrain avec deux maisons érigées dessus. On retrouve Kennedy à quelques reprises jusqu'en 1834 alors qu'il effectue des transactions immobilières ou financières parfois difficiles à attribuer au père ou à son fils homonyme.

BIBLIO: I-MANQ, L. Chaboillez 1793/9/15 #885, 1798/12/11 #3300, 1799/9/17 #3679, 1800/4/23 #4061, 1802/7/13 #5350. Gr. J.B. Desève 1794/8/25 #939, 1794/8/27 #940, 1797/11/20 #1358. Gr. L. Huguet Latour 1816/5/20 #1231, 1232, 1816/5/30 #1234, 1816/10/1 #1269, 1816/10/4 #1272, 1818/1/2 #1400, 1401, 1818/8/20 #1457, 1824/1/8 #1827, 1830/3/15 #2493. Gr. J.M. Mondelet 1830/3/22 #5141, 1834/5/23 #5793. Gr. L. Raymond 1827/9/18. Gr. P. Lukin 1799/6/6 #1475. AJ 1797/2/18. JANQ, Gr. Barthelemy 1817/3/17. EC MND, 1810/1/8. III-Langdon 1966. IV-Traquair 1973.

Historic Archeological Research gives further information about Kinzie's apprenticeship as a silversmith:

"Born on December 27, 1763, John Mackenzie later shortened his name to Kinzie. At age 10, Kinzie indentured himself as apprentice with Quebec silversmith George Farnham, Ltd. In 1777, he moved to Detroit and worked for William Burnett's business in the Indian trade. Kinzie worked both in Detroit, as well as at a trading post in the Potawatomi village of Chief Topenebe on the St. Joseph of the Lake river. Apparently, Kinzie was respected by the Indians as a fair trader and accomplished silversmith. His given Indian name was Shawneeawkee 'The Silver Man'." (Green 1994, p. 24-25.)

"Much of the information regarding Kinzie's background was gathered from a book by Allan Eckert Gateway to Empire [Eckert 1983 to be checked] that utilized and cited the Draper Manuscripts [Harper 1983 to be checked] at the University of Wisconsin [State Historical Society of Wisconsin]. While this is an historical narrative, we did attempt to verify the Draper citings for all the material we used in the book. I believe you'll find George Farnham in the Draper papers. The touchmark was identified in a book by George Ira Quimby entitled: Indian Culture and European Trade Goods [Quimby 1966]. I personally excavated this piece and if my memory serves me correctly it was between 25-30 cm deep near the base of the subsoil. I can unequivocally state that this one is indeed authentic; that is unless someone was counterfeiting these during the turn of the 18th and 19th century." (Collaboration from Rich Green, January 23, 2002.)

"Eckert's book Gateway to Empire... [Eckert 1983 to be checked] may disappoint you, much of it is fiction. John Forbes Swenson uses the word mendacious to describe it." (Collaboration from Ulrich Danckers and John Forbes Swenson, January 25, 2002.)

If this information is authentic, why then did Langdon stated that Kinzie was trained as a silversmith in Montreal? Our long experience with Langdon's books (Langdon 1966, p. 90) and archives at the University of Toronto (Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library to be checked on Kinzie), reveals that he very often made educated guesses that proved to be false...! And sometimes he had sources that cannot be found elsewhere...! A double check of these archives would thus be needed to determine the source of this information on the issue of the hypothetical training of Kinzie as a silversmith in Montreal!

Green 1994 does not refer to an original apprenticeship contract signed in Quebec City and that we may find at the Archives nationales du Québec (it would be worth checking if such a contract exists). This publication refers to several authors we need to check. (Green 1994, refering to Eckert 1983, Griswold 1917 and Howe 1888.) If Kinzie was placed as an apprentice silversmith at the age of 10, it very probably was in the last days of December 1773, or from January to December of 1774, since he was born somewhere in December. When giving a date deduced from John Kinzie's age in our study, whe will then forget about the last days of the year when he got that age in December and consider only the following year. From this information, it means that his family was still living in Quebec City at this period.

Statistics from 77 apprenticeship indentures in the English Regime in the Province of Quebec, from 1760 to 1840, reveal that only two apprentices began at such an early age, that is between 7 and 11 years old; 5 began at the age of 12, and 52% at the age of 13 to 15. The average age to begin a silversmith apprenticeship in the Province of Quebec was 14.8 years old, and the average age of completion was at 20.8 years old. Most terminated their apprenticeship at the age of 21 (55%) and only 29% before that age. (Derome 1993, tableau 7 here reproduced)

Active Silversmiths in Quebec Province
between 1773 and 1777
that might have trained John Kinzie as an apprentice
sorted by their "beginning of activity" date

compiled from Robert Derome archives and databases

Name

Birth

Death

Beginning of apprenticeship

End of apprenticeship

Beginning of activity

End of activity

Palin dit Dabonville, L.C.

1709

1774

   

1727

1774

Lefebvre, François

1705

 

1725

1727

1727

1781

Delezenne, Ignace-François

1718

1790

   

1740

1790

Gaudin dit Lapoterie, L.N.

1725

1809

   

1747

1809

Sedilot dit Montreuil, Charles

1711

1785

   

1750

1785

Chappuis dit Comtois, Jean Joram

1718

1775

   

1755

1775

Picard, Louis-Alexandre

1727

1799

   

1755

1799

Delique, Charles-François

1723

     

1756

1788

Mentor, Dominique-François

1723

1773

1749

1757

1757

1773

Legu dit La Noue, Jean-Baptiste

1737

 

1748

1758

1758

1773

Varin dit Lapistole, Jacques

1736

1791

   

1762

1791

Hoxie, Samuel

1741

1800

   

1762

1800

Hanna, James

1737

1807

   

1763

1807

Maillou, Amable

1739

1808

1756

1762

1763

1808

Decousse, Bernard

1761

     

1766

1783

Belanger, Philippe

1746

 

1764

1766

1766

1784

Schindler, Joseph

-1763

1792

   

1766

1792

Cruickshank, Robert

1745

1809

1759

1766

1766

1807

Amiot, Jean-Nicolas

1750

1821

   

1767

1821

Lucas, Joseph

1748

 

1766

1771

1771

1791

Ranvoyzé, François

1739

1819

   

1771

1819

Huguet dit Latour, L.A.

1754

1792

1766

1772

1772

1792

Sinclair, James

       

1774

1774

Larivée, Eustache

1754

 

1769

1774

1774

1781

Wood, John

 

1782

   

1775

1782

Dubreuil, Joachim

1749

     

1775

1797

Forton, Michel

1754

1817

   

1775

1817

Rousseau, Dominique

1755

1825

 

1776

1776

1825

Roberts, Isaac

       

1777

1777

The name of George Farnham as a silversmith is unknown in canadian (Langdon 1966, Traquair 1940) and american publications we have consulted, as well as in our own extended archives on Quebec Province silversmiths. But in Boston one may find several Farnam silversmiths as well as their marks. Wyler 1937 (p. 288), gives marks by Farnam silversmiths in Boston Massachusetts: R & H, 1807; Rufus, 1796; Thomas, 1836; Farnam & Ward, 1810; Farnam & Owen, 1810. Buhler 1970 (p. 325, no. 321 and 303) gives a mark "FARNAM" and another one "R. FARNAM" for Rufus. Buhler 1972 (vol. 2, p. 533) gives Rufus (born 1769) and Henry (born 1773) Farnam, sometimes spelt "Farnham". Since they were active only after 1796 they cannot have trained John Kinzie. Could they have had a relative named George that was active by 1773-1777 when John Kinzie was trained as a silversmith? On other hand, Jackson 1964 gives several references to "GF" marks from English Goldsmiths, but none refers to a "George Farnham"! This George Farnham seems to be a very elusive person. Further research is needed to document his career. Or could we right now discredit this information as non valid? Especially if John Kinzie might never have returned to Quebec City as we will see below?

Was John Kinzie in Detroit by 1777 (at 13 years old) as stated by Historic Archeological Research, or by 1779 (15 years old)? If John Kinzie began his apprenticeship at the age of 10 in 1774, it means that he quit his alledged master of Quebec City only after a few years of training.

"The Forsyth family, and John Kinzie, moved to Detroit by 1779, and were enumerated in that year's census. The tradition that the five Forsyth sons were born in Detroit is inconsistent with the censuses of 1762, 1765, and 1768, in which no Forsyths are recorded." (Danckers 2000, p. 220.)

These verifications with Detroit censuses discredit the information recorded in Gérard Morisset's Inventaire des Oeuvres d'art later named Inventaire des Biens Culturels du Québec (John Kinzie's file 04010, notes of Louis Carrier acquired from Milo Milton Quaife, curator, Burton Historical collection, Detroit Public Library), according to the fact the William Forsyth had moved with his family, and thus with John Kinzie, to Detroit around 1765.

Lossing's 1869 testimonies gives a different story on Kinzie's biography as a youth. It seems that Kinzie would have travelled abroad in the United States before coming back to Quebec City where he became an apprentice at the age of 10 years old in 1774.

"[John Kinzie's mother] with her husband (Mr. Forsythe) removed to the city of New York. At the age of ten years young Kinzie was placed in a school in Williamsburg, near Long Island. One day he made his way to the North River, got on board of an Albany sloop, and started for Quebec. Fortunately for him, he found a passenger who was on his way to that city, who took charge of him. At Quebec the boy apprenticed himself to a silversmith. Three years afterward, his family, having returned to Canada for the purpose of moving to Detroit, discovered him. They had supposed him lost forever." (Lossing 1869 web, chapter XV, note 23.)
KINZIE MANSION AND FORT DEARBORN. (Lossing 1869 web, chapter XV)

Such a long journey, as New York - Quebec, is almost unbelievable for a 10 years old lonely child! Especially in such a troubled period as the one preceeding the Independance of the United States of America and their attack upon the British Colonies of Quebec...! But the events are not impossible since Kinzie's step father William Forsyth seems to have come from New York City. (Collaboration from John Forbes Swenson, telephone call on January 26, 2002.) A witted young man of this age, strong willed and minded, may have had a strong need of independance. Did he have imperative reasons to quit his family? Was he unconfortable with his step family, forcing him to flee from his mother and step-father? Or may he have had strong links with some people in Quebec City? Was this story made up and arranged, by him and/or his family, and later used by Lossing as a mythical act of bravado? If everything is true, do we have other means of corroboration? (Collaboration from John Forbes Swenson, telephone call on January 26, 2002, with references to Forsyth family traditions related in Kinzie 1856, see also Kinzie 1998 second edition published on the web, excerpt from chapter XVII.)

John Kinzie youth and career narrated from a family tradition reported by
"Mrs. John H. Kinzie", Juliette Augusta Kinzie born Magill (1806-1870)

Source: Kinzie 1856, see also Kinzie 1998 second edition published on the web, excerpt from chapter XVII.
[our comments added in red between brackets]

RESIDENCE OF JOHN KINZIE ESQ.
(THE FIRST HOUSE BUILT IN CHICAGO)
[The signatures, under the image, are illlegible on this jpg picture: the one of the designer on the left side, and the one of the engraver on the right side.]

He [John Kinzie] was born in Quebec (L. C.) [The term "Lower Canada" was used from the 1791 Constitutionnal Act dividing the territory in Lower and Upper Canada, and only until the Union of Canada in 1840] in 1763. His mother had been previously married to a gentleman of the name of Haliburton. The only daughter of this marriage was the mother of Gen. Fleming and Nicholas Low, Esq., of New York. She is described as a lady of remarkable beauty and accomplishments. Mr. Kinzie was the only child of the second marriage. His father died in his infancy, and his mother married a third time a Mr. Forsyth [about 1764], after which they removed to the city of New York. [Would that be in 1764? Or soon after? Or later?]

At the age of ten or eleven years [that would be either in 1774 or 1775] he was placed at school with two of his half-brothers at Williamsburg, L. I. [Long Island]. A negro servant was sent from the city every Saturday, to bring the children home, to remain until the following Monday morning. Upon one occasion, when the messenger arrived at the school he found all things in commotion. Johnny Kinzie was missing! Search was made in all directions; every place was ransacked. It was all in vain; no Johnny Kinzie could be found.

[Would it be possible that John Kinzie did not like the school, or the teacher? And that he prefered to learn a trade instead of studying at school?]

The heavy tidings were carried home to his mother. By some it was supposed the lad was drowned; by others that he had strayed away, and would return. Weeks passed by, and months, and he was at length given up and mourned as lost. In the meantime the boy was fulfilling a determination he had long formed, to visit his native city of Quebec, and make his way in life for himself.

[According to previous information John Kinzie might have left Quebec City in 1764, or soon after, or later! Did he have any memory of this city? According to this text, he had been dreaming since a while to visit Quebec City where he was born.]

He had by some means succeeded in crossing from Williamsburg to the city of New York, and finding at one of the docks on the North River a sloop bound for Albany, he took passage on board of her.

[Albany was an obligatory stop since it was the terminal of the sloop. Kinzie thus went by on Albany streets where he might have met with silversmith Gerritt Graverat as we will see below.]

While on his way up the river, he was noticed by a gentleman, who, taking an interest in the little lonely passenger, questioned him about his business.

"He was going to Quebec, where he had some friends."

[If Kinzie remembered friends from Quebec, it means that he might have left Quebec City at a later age and not right after his mother marriage with William Forsyth in 1764! The text says that "he was going" to Quebec city, it does not say that "he went" to Quebec City. So, it might be possible that he never went to Quebec City and that he stopped in Albany.]

"Had he the means to carry him there?"

"Not much, but he thought he could get along."

It happened, fortunately, that the gentleman himself was going to Quebec. He took the boy under his care, paid his expenses the whole distance, and finally parted with him in the streets of the city, where he was, in truth, a stranger.

[This part of the text states "Quebec" and not "Quebec city"! Might it be remembered that at this period Detroit was in the Province of Quebec according to the new Act of Quebec of 1774! This passage inclines us to think that Kinzie might have wanted to go to Quebec City, but that "en route", he found opportunities to go to the town of Detroit in the Province of Quebec! In which of theses cities did he went on the streets? Albany, Quebec or Detroit?]

He wandered about for a time, looking into various "stores" and workshops. At length, on entering the shop of a silversmith [no name of silversmith is mentionned], he was satisfied with the expression he read in the countenance of the master, and he inquired if he wanted an apprentice.

"What, you, my little fellow! What can you do?"

"Anything you can teach me."

"Well, we will make a trial and see."

The trial was satisfactory. He remained in the family of his kind friend for more than three years [that would be until either 1777 or 1778], when his parents, who, in removing to Detroit, had necessarily returned to Canada, discovered his place of abode, and he was restored to them.

[Might it be remembered that at this period Detroit was in Canada and not in the United States of America! This passage inclines us to think that Kinzie was found, after his flee, in Detroit (part of the Province of Quebec) and not in Quebec City! And what was that "necessity" that forced the family to return to Canada? And to go to Detroit? Was it related to the American Revolution? Were they Loyalists? Or was this "necessity" related with the fact that they knew that John was now residing in Detroit and they wanted to join him?]

There were five younger half-brothers of the name of Forsyth. In the old family Bible, we find the following touching record of an event that occurred after the family had removed to Detroit.

"George Forsyth was lost in the woods 6th August, 1775, when Henry Hays and Mark Stirling ran away and left him. The remains of George Forsyth were found by an Indian the 2d of October, 1776, close by the Prairie Ronde."

[We think that this information is believable and authentic: the text is in between quotation marks and has been closely copied directly from the family Bible; the original text is hand written in the family Bible, thus not far from faith in the afterdeath to console from the sorrows of a lost child; it is very precise in its details, dates and names of the two boys that accompanied George; it was probably written in this Bible as a record of this important event to be remembered within the family history. I would bet that this Bible printing date was well before George's death in 1775! Would it still be preserved somewhere to check on which page and context this inscription was placed?

From this authentic and precise document we may conclude that the Forsyth family was thus living in Detroit before August 1775! Would there be somewhere an original record of George Forsyth's death (register or tombstone) that could corroborate this dating and story?

This historic information is thus to be confronted with some incoherence in dating within the story, stated above, about the trip of the family to Detroit in 1777 or 1778 when they found John.]

It seems a singular fatality that the unhappy mother should have been twice called to suffer a similar affliction -- the loss of a child in a manner worse than death, inasmuch as it left room for all the horrors that imagination can suggest. The particulars of the loss of this little brother were these. As he came from school one evening, he met the colored servant boy on horseback, going to the common for the cows. The school-house stood quite near the old fort, and all beyond that, all that now lies west of Fort street, was a wild, uncultivated tract called "The Common."

Bellin, La Rivière du Détroit..., 1764, detail of the area called by Kinzie 1998 "The Common" or "Prairie Ronde" west to the Fort of Detroit.

The child begged of the servant to take him up and give him a ride, but the other refused, bidding him return home at once. He was accompanied by two other boys, somewhat older, and together they followed the negro for some distance, hoping to prevail upon him to give them a ride. As it grew dark, the two older boys turned back, but the other kept on. When the negro returned he had not again seen the child, nor were any tidings ever received of him, notwithstanding the diligent search made by the whole little community, until, as related in the record, his remains were found the following year by an Indian. There was nothing to identify them, except the auburn curls of his hair, and the little boots he had worn. He must have perished very shortly after having lost his way, for the Prairie Ronde was too near the settlement to have prevented his hearing the calls and sounding horns of those in search of him.

Mr. Kinzie's enterprising and adventurous disposition led him, as he grew older, to live much on the frontier. He early entered into The Indian trade, and had establishments at Sandusky and Maumee, and afterwards pushed further west, about the year 1800, to St. Joseph's. In this year he married Mrs. McKillip, the widow of a British officer, and in 1804 came to make his home at Chicago. It was in this year that the first fort was built.

By degrees more remote trading-posts were established by him, all contributing to the parent one at Chicago; at Milwaukie with the Meenomonees; at Rock River with the Winnebagoes and the Pottowattamies; on the Illinois River and Kankakee with the Pottowattamies of the Prairies, and with the Kickapoos in what was called "Le Large," being the widely extended district afterwards erected into Sangamon County.

Each trading-post had its superintendent, and its complement of engagés -- its train of pack-horses and its equipment of boats and canoes. From most of the stations the "furs and peltries" were brought to Chicago on pack-horses, and the goods necessary for the trade were transported in return by the same method.

The vessels which came in the spring and fall (seldom more than two or three annually), to bring the supplies and goods for the trade, took the furs that were already collected to Mackinac, the depôt of the South-West and American Fur Companies. At other seasons they were sent to that place in boats, coasting around the lake.

This family tradition states that Kinsey became an apprentice at the age of 10 or 11 as a silversmith in Quebec. One must not confuse the Province of Quebec with the City of Quebec. We must note that this story does not give any silversmith name! It futher gives a delay of 3 years between his apprenticeship indenture and the family move to Detroit. We have seen that the Forsyth family was living in Detroit either by 1777 or by 1779. But it must now be considered, according to George Forsyth's death in Detroit in 1775, that the whole family lived there at this early date! If John Kinzie fled from New York three years earlier, it would then be in 1772 that he came to Detroit. According to his birth he would have been 8 years old in 1772 and not "10 or 11" as said in the family story. Would he then have been born three years earlier, in December of 1760? Probably not, since several sources points to December 1763. We must then conclude that the family story might be distorting one or the other of these informations: the three years period between his flee from New York and his retrival by his family in Detroit; or his approximate age of "10 or 11" when he fled from New York!

Silversmiths active in early Detroit, before, and at the time of John Kinzie's arrival

Bellin, Plan du Fort du Détroit, 1764, detail from map titled La Rivière du Détroit...

"By the middle years of the eighteenth cenrury we have our first mention of silversmiths in Detroit. Such were Jean Baptiste Baudry dit des Buttes dit St. Martin of Three Rivers, Quebec, trader, interpreter and silversmith in Detroit where he died in 1755, and Charles Barthe whom Major Henry Gladwin paid for services as armorer and silversmith." (Robinson 1952.10, p. 5-6.)

Guillaume Baudry dit Des Buttes was born in Quebec City in 1656. In 1679 he lives in Three-Rivers when his father gives him a land. Several sources document his life in Three Rivers where he marries in 1682 and dies in 1732. He is said "arquebusier" from 1689 and "orfevre" in 1712. (Derome 1974b, p. 17-20.) Therefore Guillaume Baudry cannot be considered as an early Detroit silversmith in 1755 thirtheen years after his death!

But Charle Barthe seems more likely to have been active in Detroit according to Robinson 1952.10. Barthe came from France to Quebec City with his associate Ignace-François Delezenne in 1740. They both failed to establish their trade in that city. Delezenne moved to Montreal and Barthe presumably to Detroit. (Derome 1980b.)

"Jacob Harsen, born in Albany of Dutch descent, who appeared in Detroit in the 1760's and later settled as a trader on Harsen's Island in Lake St. Clair, was a gun-smith by trade but has been called a silversmith. His son-in-law, Gerrit Graverat [see also Graveraet], also of a Dutch family, came from Albany to Detroit by 1772 when Israel Ruland from Long Island was apprenticed to him to learn the trade of silversmith. It is probable that the chief output of these men was Indian trade silver which from the middle of the eighteenth century until well into the nineteenth century was in increasing demand." (Robinson 1952.10, p. 6.)

Joseph (Jonas) Schindler and his apprentice Michel Forton both left Quebec City for Michillimakinac (Mackinaw City, Michigan) at the end of April 1775 in association with a "marchand-voyageur" of Montreal called Monforton. In 1776 Schindler was trialed in Detroit for having made lesser quality silver goods. "Drummed out" of the city, Schindler is in Montreal by 1777 but he continues to work with several of Detroit's merchants. (Derome 1980d.) Could John Kinzie have been an apprentice to Schindler in Detroit?

Kinzie was living in Detroit either by 1772 (8 years old) or by 1775 (11 years old), as discussed from the family tradition above seen. It is then very highly probable that the young man was placed as an apprentice in a silversmith workshop of Albany and Detroit. Gerrit Graverat [or Graveraet] silversmith workshop seems a very appropiate place.

Jacob Harsen and Isaac Garret Graveraet
between New York, Albany and Detroit

Source: Mick Isaacs (7625 Colony Dr., Algonac, MI 48001, (810) 794-3942), "Early Settlers of the Area", Chronicles, Algona-Clay Township Historical Society, vol. 3, no 3, 2001.

Mick Isaacs gives us other informations about Albany and Detroit silversmiths Harsen and Graverat. Harsen's birth date and parents are still to be confirmed between three different versions.

A) Jacob Harsen I (One) with his brothers emigrated from Holland to New York City in 1760. Harsen was a gunsmith by trade but while in New York City, he was, for a time, associated with the well known John Jacob Astor in the fur trade. Later he moved to Michigan, first locating at Windmill Pointe on the Detroit River. He came to the St. Clair delta about 1778, being the first white person to settle in this region [this version is from family notes written in the late 1800's].

B) Barnardus Harsen married Aeltje Wolfertse seemingly in New Amsterdam on July 7, 1669. They both were from Holland. They were living in Vlakkebosch (Flatbush) on Long Island in 1677, New York City in 1683 and on Langs de Wal (Wall Street) in 1686. Their second son, Jacob, was baptized on September 22, 1672 and married his first wife, Emerentia, on October 31, 1700. Jacob and his second wife Cornelia, daughter of Cornelius Dyckman, were married on June 16, 1711. Jacob had nine children, four with Cornelia. Jacob of Harsens Island, our silversmith of Detroit, was their third child. He was baptized March 9, 1716. He married the daughter of William Groesbeck. [The New York of Yesterday, A descriptive Narrative of Old Bloomingdale, pages 126-139; Albany Coll., vol. IV p. 131; Year Book 1899 Hollands Soc.]

C) Albany church records confirm that a Jacob Harseen (or Harzen), son of Barnardus Harseen and Catharyna Pruyn, had been baptized on February 22, 1738. In 1764 in Albany, New York, Jacob married Alida Groesbeck, daughter of William Groesbeck [C. Stephan Demeter, "Jacob Harsen and the Early Settlement of Harsen's Island", Delta News, June 1993].

Jacob Harsen in the 1760's was located in Albany, New York. He was associated with the British Indian Department in Albany as early as August 22, 1760 when he was reported to have been contracted "to work as a gunsmith for the Indians who came to Niagara, at 100 Pounds currency per annum." Other Indian Department records identify Harsen within the more generalized profession of "smith." Besides repairing guns, Harsen would have been expected to repair and make traps, axes, knives and a range of more mundane articles that had come to be essential for the survival of native peoples in the interior woodlands. In 1764, Harsen married Alida Groesbeck, the daughter of William Groesbeck. While the specifics of Harsen's exile to Detroit are obscure, his residence in that community can be documented by the census record of 1778.

Jacob Harsen moved to Detroit and bought a farm where an old windmill stood, at a location called Windmill Pointe on the Detroit River. The original Harsen homestead, located on the north end of the Island just off the North Channel, is claimed to have been built in 1778.

This is where his son Francis was born. The old records show that he sold the Windmill Pointe land to Robert Little and he then moved to Harsens Island; first called Jacob's Island. He came to the St. Clair River delta between 1778 and 1783, being the first white person to settle in this region. The Harsen claim to the Island stems from a deed of gift granted by four Chippewa headman to Jacob Harsen's children, Barnardus, James and William, dated May 1, 1783. Harsen made three trips a year to the trading post at Chicago. Jacob I was a gunsmith, fur trader, farmer and skilled in other necessary trades of that day. He died intestate (without a will) sometime between 1799 and 1802.

The Harsens were actually part of a fast growing group of New York-Dutch traders who were taking up residence in Detroit. These included the partnership of Joseph Visger and Isaac Garret Graveraet. It is probable that the Graveraet and Harsen families knew each other years before in Albany.

Graveraet, who was baptized in Albany in 1745, was a silversmith by trade and had resided in Detroit since at 1773 (about 28 years old). Their combined trades of gunsmith and silversmith enhanced their skills in producing merchandise to be traded to the Indians. Sarah, Jacob I's oldest daughter, married Isaac Graveraet in about 1780. Unfortunately, Graveraet died in 1789. Sara then moved in with her father with her children, Isaac, Jacob, Henry and Mary. Jacob I's granddaughter, Mary Graveraet, lost an arm in 1789, caused by an accidental gunshot wound; Mary later married Harvey Stewart in 1814. Jacob I's son, Barnardus, and daughter, Sarah, were killed in 1800 in the explosion of a keg of gun powder in the original house on the Harsen homestead.

See also: "Major Early Albany Families", on this website Colonial Albany Project.

Graverat's workshop was associated in trade with his father-in-law Jacob Harsen established at Detroit. Graverat, according to Robinson 1952.10, came to Detroit by 1772 from Albany with an apprentice named Israel Ruland from Long Island. According to Mick Isaacs Graveraet came to Detroit in 1773. This date seems an approximative information! May John Kinzie have travelled from New York to Albany with Israel Ruland? And then the two apprentices might have travelled with Graverat from Albany to Detroit! Ruland later worked for the Indian Department and became an interpreter. Kinzie's further career will also have a lot to do with the Indians.

If Graverat came to Detroit in 1772 or 1773 with Kinzie it confirms Robinson's and Isaacs' date of his coming to Detroit and the family story that the Forsyth found him in Detroit three years later in 1775 when their son George deceased there. But we have to change Kinzie's age in the family story: he was not "10 or 11", but only 8 or 9 years old! Which is a very young age to flee from home!

But if Graverat came to Detroit only in 1774 when Kinzie was 10 years old, it confirms the age of the beginning of his apprenticeship according to the family story. But we then have to revise the date when Graverat came to Detroit! And the information that the Forsyth family found him three years later, since they were living in Detroit in 1775, one year later!

We are in need to confirm one or the other of these hypothesis with some other more precise historical documents and references...

The 1779 census of Detroit shows that William Forsyth is living in Detroit with his family. In this census, is John Kinzie to be included as one of the numbered children of the Forsyth family or with the "engagés" of the silversmith Graverat household? Forsyth lives inside the Fort on "rue Saint Louis", corner of Madras street. Furthermore, in 1781 existed a trading firm by the name of "Graverat & Forsyth". Kinzie's stepfather William Forsyth was thus in business with the silversmith Gerrit Graverat, a very good reason to think that John Kinzie was placed with Graverat as an apprentice silversmith. Graverat owned a prosperous silversmith business since in 1779 he had 2 "engagés" and in 1782 he had 6. (Collaboration from John Forbes Swenson, telephone call on January 26, 2002, with references to Haldimand Papers, Roger Clarks Papers, Thomas Dalton's correspondance.)

"Kinzie started in the Indian fur trade about 1780 under William Burnett and was long associated with this wealthy merchant, who had been financing his operations as late as 1801. As a trader and silversmith, Kinzie did business at the Miamis Town (Fort Wayne, IN) in 1789 [...]." (Danckers 2000, p. 220.)

"By age 17, in 1780, John Kinzie was an Indian Trader on his own. Two posts were established on the Maumee river. The first was near the principal village of the Miami tribe, Kekionga, also called Miamitown, encompassed by present Ft. Wayne, Indiana. (Griswold 1917) At this post, he traded primarily with Miamis, Potawatomis, Shawnees and Ottawas. The second maumee river post was located at the mouth of the Auglaize river near current Defiance, Ohio. (Howe 1888) Most trading at this post was with Shawnees and Ottawas." (Green 1994, p. 25.)

Born in December 1763, Kinzie was only about 16 in 1780, which seems very young to be in such business! This story sounds more like romance and myth (or hypothetical educated guesses) than reality! His trading with Indians seems to be real, but probably needs to be dated a little later in his life, more likely after 1784 when we have solid documented proof that he is a newly established silvermith in Detroit City.

A document found at the Archives nationales du Québec à Montréal, testifies that John Kinzie is now a new and well established silversmith in Detroit by April 5, 1784.

"April 5, 1784. Deposit of a sale of a messuage [alteration of old french word "mesnage"; means "premise", that is a building or part of a building usually with its appurtenances as grounds] situated in the town of Detroit, on St Ann Street, by William Groesbeck, merchant, of Detroit, to John Kinzie, silversmith, of Detroit. Witnessed by notary Thomas Williams." (Montréal, Archives nationales du Québec, base de données Parchemin, reference to Fonds Drouin, microfilm 3316, registre anglais n° 2, folio 430.)

Notaires de Détroit 1737-1780
Archives publiques, Canada, MG 18 I 5

Source: Montréal, Archives nationales du Québec, microfilms 3545 et 3546.

MICROFILM 3545

Tome 1, 1737-1780. "Copie des Premiers Registres du Detroit en français." Transcriptions, 1092 pages. This is not our reference since on pages 429-431 we find an act by Philippe Dejean, adjudication to Jean Askin of a land of "dix arpents de front que quarante de profondeur située à la grosse pointe sur le Bord du Lac St Clair". Minutes of Thomas Williams are found on pages "983 à 989, 991, 995 à 1092". We found nothing on John Kinzie in these documents dated before 1784.

Tome 2, 1780-1784, transcriptions, 422 pages. Registre du notaire Thomas Williams en français. Documents of 1784 begins on page 296.

Tome 3, 1786-1784, Notaire Montforton originaux, 541 pages.

MICROFILM 3546

Tome 4, 1790-1796, transcriptions, 133 pages. "Registres 4me Français 1790-1796." On page 49 : "No 1 Registres 4me Anglais".

Tome 5, 1766-1780, transcriptions, 352 pages. "Registre N°1 Anglais 1766-1780.

Tome 6, 1776-1784, transcriptions, 460 pages. "Registre N°2 Français Anglais". On pages 430-432 we find the actual transcription from the original minute of Notary Thomas Williams pertaining to John Kinzie. Would the original document have been preserved in Detroit or elsewhere? Here is a transcript of this document as well as scanned images taken from xerox copies of this microfilm pages 430, 431 and 432.

April 5, 1784,
Sale by William Groesbeck to John Kinzie silversmith
of a Messuage on St Ann Street in Detroit

Before Thomas Williams Notary of Detroit

John Kinzie

Known all men by these presents that I William Groesbeck of Detroit, Merchant, for and in consideration of the Sum of Three Hundred and forty pounds New York Currency, to one in hand paid by John Kinzie of Detroit aforesaid Silver Smith, the receipt whereof I do hereby confess and acknowledge. Have bargained granted, Sold, alienated and confirmed and by these presents do bargain, grant, sell, alien and confirm unto the said John Kinzie his heirs and assigns forever. All that Messuage or tenement and Lot of Ground situated and lying in the town of Detroit, aforesaid. containing Thirty three feet four inces front and rear. and Twenty two feet six inches in depth -

Bellin, Plan du Fort du Détroit, 1764, detail of Rue Sainte Anne.

bounded in the front by St Ann's Street in the rear by Thomas McCrais Lot on the West-South-West by Catharine Grills Lot and on the -East-North-East by the said William Groesbeck's Lot, with all and singular the appurtenances unto the said Messuage or tenement and Lot of Ground belonging or in anywise appertaining and also all the Estate, Right, Little, Interest, Claim or Demand, of me the said William Groesbeck of, in and to, the said Messuage tenement and Lot of Ground and of in and to every part and parcel thereof. To have and to hold the said Messuage, tenement and Lot of Ground, with all and singular the appurtenance there-unto belonging unto the said John Kinzie his heirs and assigns for the only proper use and behoof of the said John Kinzie his heirs and assigns for Ever. And I the said William Groesbeck for myself my heirs and assigns against myself my heirs and assigns and against all and every other person and persons whatsoever. the said Messuage tenement and Lot of Ground and every part and parcel thereof I shall and will warrant and for ever defend by virtue of these presents. In witness thereof, I have hereunto set my hand and seal at Detroit aforesaid the fifth day of April in the year of our Lord one Thousand seven hundred and eighty four - 1784 -

[signed] Wm Groesbeck

signed and sealed in the presence of

John Casety

T Williams Noty Pubc

 

We now know that in 1784 John Kinzie is buying a house in Detroit on St. Ann Street and that he records himself as a silversmith. It might be valuable documenting his new neighbours: William Groesbeck, Thomas McCrais and Catharine Grills. William Groesbeck was also a neighbour of the silversmith Gerrit Graverat, where John Kinzie might have been working as an apprentice since 1772! (Collaboration from John Forbes Swenson, telephone call on January 26, 2002.)

On April 5, 1784, Kinzie is now 20 years old since December 1783. This is almost the average age of 20.8 old for an apprentice to become a master and to establish a business. (Derome 1993.) Nevertheless, he is still a minor and this is probably why he does not sign at the bottom of the sale document. The cosignee and witness is not his mother, Emily or Anne Tyne, nor his stepfather William Forsyth, but "John Casety".

"By 1785 Kinzie was practicing his art in Détroit - I have his invoice to James Casety, a wealthy habitant, for sale of various items of trade silver. By 1787 he was active in Anglican Church at Detroit, subscribing to the support of a clergyman there with many prominent men". (Collaboration from John Forbes Swenson, January 2002, references to Burton Historical Collection, genealogy files on Kinzie and Forsyth, as well as papers of notary Thomas Williams.)

John Casety thus seems to have played an important role in the early career of John Kinzie, since he witnessed the acquisition of his house in Detroit. May he have helped financing it? It might be possible since they are in business by 1785. We need to futher document this John Casety who happens to have an homonym in Virgina at the same period. (Source 1: Virginia Cassidy Lines. Source 2: Augusta County, VA - Will Book 6, Abstracts from "Chalkley's Chronicles of the Scotch-Irish in Virginia".)

John Kinzie's early career
hypothesis of chronology proposal

Sources: see discussions and documents upwards.

1761 (not yet born). His mother, Emily or Anne Tyne, widow of British army chaplain William Halliburton, marries John Kenzie or MacKenzie.

1763 (not yet born). His father John Kenzie or MacKenzie, a Scottish surgeon in the British army, dies about 1763.

1763, December (birth). John Kinzie is born in Quebec City.

1764 (less than 1 year old). His mother marries William Forsyth in Quebec City.

??? "After which they removed to the city of New York."

1772 (about 8 years old) or 1774 (about 10 years old). John Kinsey studies in a school at Williamsburg Long Island. He might have fled from New York to Albany with Israel Rutland. In Albany, they both might have become apprentices to silversmith Gerrit Graverat [or Graveraet] who soon moves to Detroit to take on the silversmith business of his father-in-law Jacob Harsen. Might Rutland and Kinzie, as appentices, have accompanied Graverat in his trip from Albany to Detroit?

1775 (about 11 years old). John Kinzie's step-family, the Forsyth family, is living in Detroit. John Kinzie's half-brother George Forsyth is lost in the woods on August 6 and dies in "The Common" or "Prairie Ronde" west of the Fort.

1776 (about 12 years old). The remains of George Forsyth are found by an Indian close by the Prairie Ronde on October 2.

1779 (about 15 years old). The William Forsyth family is registered in Detroit census. Gerrit Graverat's silversmith worshop shows that he has 2 "engagés", one of which might be John Kinzie.

1781 (about 17 years old). Activities of the trading firm by the name of "Graverat & Forsyth" in Detroit: silversmith Gerrit Graverat and John Kinzie's step-father William Forsyth.

1782 (about 18 years old). Gerrit Graverat's silversmith worshop prospers with 6 "engagés", one of which might be John Kinzie.

1784, April 5 (about 20 years old). John Kinzie buys a house on Saint Ann Street in Detroit from William Groesbeck. This house is located close to the one of silversmith Gerrit Graverat. There is thus enough work for silversmiths in Detroit to establish this new workshop of John Kinzie. John Casety witnesses this sale and signs at the bottom of the document. John Casety thus seems to have played an important role in the early career of John Kinzie. May he have helped financing the buying of his house?

1785 (about 21 years old). John Kinzie sends an invoice to James Casety, a wealthy habitant, for sale of various items of trade silver. He is now well established as a silversmith in Detroit.

As for the remaining part of John Kinzie's career, please refer to the excellent extended study made by John F. Sweenson in Danckers 2000 (p. 220-225).

Donald Schlickan architect, The second fort Dearborn in 1832, aquarelle. (Jacket cover from Danckers 2000.)

Other references on John Kinzie may also be found on the web

Christmas in Early America, Forest Preserve District of Cook County (Illinois): refers to silver goblets made by John Kinzie.

Historic Sauder Village: refers to a cross made by John Kinzie.

Trade silver artifacts (necklaces and cross) at the University of British Columbia from Artefacts Canada database.

John Kinzie tombstone in Graceland Cemetery

External Studies Program - History of Chicago, Roosevelt University , History of Chicago from Trading Post to Metropolis, Module 1 Chapter 1, Early Exploration and Settlement: refers to John Kinzie's career.

Google: for futher research on John Kinzie silversmith.

 
 

COLLABORATION

Your collaboration is welcome.
DANCKERS Ulrich, author of a major book on the history of Chicago (Danckers 2000) and his role in relaying our numerous emails to John F. Swenson.

GREEN Rich, 4338 Hadley Court, West Lafayette, IN 47906. Tel. 765-464-8735.

SWENSON John Forbes, 1339 Swainwood Drive, Glenview Illinois, 60025-2841 USA. Fax 847-729-5113. Tel. 847-729-4823. My deepest thanks to Mr. Swenson who promted the research process for this study by the generous gift of his book on Early Chicago (Danckers 2000).

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Buhler 1970 = Buhler, Karhryn C., et Graham Hood, American Silver, Garvan and Other Collections in the Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven et London, Yale University Press for the Yale University Art Gallery, 1970, 2 vol..

Buhler 1972 = Buhler, Karhryn C., American Silver 1655-1825 in the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, Greenwich (Connecticut), Distributed by New York Graphic Society for the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, 1972, 2 vol..

Danckers 2000 = Danckers, Ulrich, and Jane Meredith, John F. Swenson (contributing editor), with a contribution from Helen H. Tanner, foreword by Mayor Richard M. Daley, A Compendium of the Early History of Chicago to the Year 1835 when the Indians left, River Forest (Illinois), Early Chicago Incorporated, 2000, 430 p..

Derome 1974b = Derome, Robert, Les orfèvres de Nouvelle-France, Inventaire descriptif des sources, Ottawa, Galerie nationale du Canada (Documents d'histoire de l'art canadien, n° 1), 1974, 242 p..

Derome 1980b = Derome, Robert, « Delezenne, Ignace-François », Dictionnaire biographique du Canada, Volume IV, de 1771 à 1800, Québec, Les Presses de l'Université Laval, 1980, p. 220-224. [Also published in english as Dictionary of Canadian Biography.]

Derome 1980d = Derome, Robert, « Schindler, Joseph », Dictionnaire biographique du Canada, Volume IV, de 1771 à 1800, Québec, Les Presses de l'Université Laval, 1980, p. 761-762. [Also published in english as Dictionary of Canadian Biography.]

Derome 1993 - Derome, Robert, « Les plus anciens outils et ateliers d'orfèvres au Québec », Christiane Eluère (édit.), Outils et ateliers d'orfèvres des temps anciens (antiquités nationales, mémoire 2), Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Société des Amis du Musée de Antiquités Nationales et du Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye avec le concours du Ministère de la Culture, 1993, p. 259-274.

Derome 1996a = Derome, Robert (commissaire), Les orfèvres montréalais des origines à nos jours, catalogue chrono-thématique, Exposition présentée à la Galerie de l'UQAM du 30 mai au 22 juin 1996, Montréal, Université du Québec à Montréal, 1996, 95 p..

Dunnigan 2001 = Dunnigan, Bryan, Frontier Metropolis, Wayne State University, 2001. [Bryan Dunnigan is curator of maps, Clemens Library, University of Michigan. Collaboration from John Forbes Swenson, telephone call on January 26, 2002.]

Eckert 1983 = Eckert, Allan W., Gateway to Empire, a Narrative, 1st ed., Boston / Toronto, Little / Brown (The Winning of America series), c1983, xiv, 688 p., maps, 24 cm.

Green 1994 = Green, Richard, Tony DeRagnaucourt, Larry Hamilton, Archaeology of Prophetstown, Greene Ville Ohio, 1805-1808, second edition, Arcanum (Ohio), Historic Archeological Research Inc., 1994, 43 p.

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Harper 1983 - Harper, Josephine Louise, Guide to the Draper manuscripts, Madison, State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1983, xxvii, 464 p., port., 24 cm.

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Jackson 1964 = Jackson, Sir Charles James (1849-1923), English Goldsmiths and Their Marks, A History of the Goldsmiths and Plate Workers of England, Scotland and Ireland…, unabridged and unaltered republication of the work first published by Macmillan and Co. in 1921, New York, Dover, 1964, 747 p..

Kinzie 1856 = Kinzie, Juliette Augusta (Magill) "Mrs. John H. Kinzie" (1806-1870), Wau-bun, the "early day" in the North-west, New York, Derby & Jackson; Cincinnati, H.W. Derby & co., 1856, xii, 13-498 p. front., plates. 23 cm. [Notes: Narrative of travel in Wisconsin and Illinois; life at Fort Winnebago (Portage) Wisconsin, 1830-1833; Chicago in 1831; Chicago massacre of 1812.]

Kinzie 1998 = Kinzie, Mrs. John H., Wau-Bun, the "Early Day" in the Northwest, second edition with illustrations, Chicago, D. B. Cooke & Co., Publishers, 1857, 498 p. plates. 24 cm, from the Memorial Library Department of Special Collections, University of Wisconsin-Madison, electronic version, University of Wisconsin-Madison General Library System and State Historical Society of Wisconsin, « Sketches of Wisconsin Pioneer Women : Mrs. John H. Kinzie », Wisconsin Electronic Reader, ©1998, last update September 27, 2001, http://www.library.wisc.edu/etext/WIReader/WER0110.html.

Langdon 1966 = Langdon, John Emerson, Canadian Silversmiths 1700-1900, Toronto, À compte d'auteur (Stinehour Press), ©1966 (édition limitée à 1000 copies), 249 p..

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Traquair 1940 = Traquair, Ramsay, The Old Silver of Quebec, Toronto, The MacMillan Company of Canada Limited under the Auspices of The Art Association of Montreal, 1940, xi, 169 p., [16] p. de planches ; Réédition, Toronto, Macmillan of Canada, 1973, 168 p..

Wyler 1937 = Wyler, Seymour B., The Book of Old Silver, English, American, Foreign, With All Available Hallmarks Including Sheffield Plate Marks, 9e édition, New York, Crown Publishers Inc., ©1937, 447 p..

 

created January 23, 2002
last update October 6, 2002  

web Robert DEROME

John Kinzie silversmith (1763-1828) his early career as Shawneeawkee "The Silver Man"